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进一步完善西北新能源跨省跨区交易机制

时间:[2019-06-04 ] 信息来源:中电新闻网
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   着力提升能源协调发展水平,进一步做好清洁能源消纳工作,是2019年能源领域重点任务之一。在可再生资源丰富的西北地区,如何通过完善市场交易机制的建设有效促进新能源消纳更显迫切。

 
  近日,由国家能源局西北监管局与西安交通大学合作开展的“促进西北地区新能源消纳的跨省(区)交易机制研究”课题报告对外发布。报告指出,西北区域跨省跨区交易近年来快速发展,对促进新能源消纳发挥了重要作用。在现行跨省跨区交易机制基础上,进一步完善交易品种将有助于挖掘跨省跨区能源优化配置的潜力,提高外送电量中新能源电量占比。
 
  跨区外送:增加发电权交易挖掘受端省份接纳能力
 
  西北地区整体电力富余,需要通过外送解决电量消纳问题。目前,西北地区跨省跨区交易主要分为通过直流通道送往中、东部省份的跨区域电能交易和西北地区内部五省(区)之间的省间电能交易。其中,跨区域电能交易以中长期交易为主,同时结合短期跨区富余可再生能源现货交易进行。前者通过火电机组与新能源打捆形成稳定出力再进行外送,后者对新能源电量外送的针对性更强,方式更加灵活。
 
  当前,西北区域跨区外送电价比受端省份本省上网电价更加具有价格优势,富余可再生能源现货交易又能够以更加灵活的价格参与交易。外送电力的经济性促使西北区域近年来跨区交易增长迅速,2017年交易电量超过该地区全年总发电量的15%。
 
  然而,受受端省份接收能力和接收意愿的影响,利用跨区交易有效消纳新能源还有较长的路要走。报告指出,从2017年交易数据看,西北地区跨区外送电量中新能源占比尚不足30%。若要进一步加大外送电量中的新能源占比,则要克服受端地区发电企业利益和接收外来电能之间的矛盾。
 
  报告建议,通过寻求灵活的市场机制缓解消纳压力。具体而言,西北跨区外送交易机制可在现有中长期双边协商为主的基础上,加入送端地区新能源机组与受端地区火电机组的发电权交易机制。发电权交易可以挖掘跨区输送受端省份的接纳能力,在保证新能源和减发火电机组双方利益的基础上,进一步促进新能源消纳。
 
  同时,增强新能源预测精度,加强系统灵活性等也是进一步促进西北区域新能源消纳的重要举措。此前,由于新能源预测精度不足,导致实际出力与预测出力存在较大误差,给发电计划的制定带来很大困难,一定程度上制约了跨区外送新能源电量占比的提升。报告建议对新能源发电站设立合理的预测奖惩机制,激励其提升预测精度;电网调度运行部门加强发电计划的优化制定,实现多能源协调互补。另一方面,充足的系统备用以及灵活性,可以在制定跨区外送电量计划时加入更多的新能源。建议加强系统备用管理,增强省间互济,充分挖掘省间备用的潜力。
 
  跨省交易:建立短期现货交易平台增强省间互济
 
  西北区域地域广阔,各省资源分布存在一定差异,发电成本也不尽相同。比如,甘肃、新疆新能源装机大,本省(区)就地消纳存在很大困难;青海水资源丰富,水电机组占比高,但随着近年来光伏发电迅猛发展,青海出现了中午电源出力大无法消纳,夜间电源出力小无法满足负荷需求的特点;陕西、宁夏新能源消纳压力相对较小,但在冬季火电机组调峰容量受限时,中午仍存在弃风弃光的情况。
 
  由于西北地区仅青海省的冬季用电量超过发电量,存在季节性短缺情况,而其余省份均有不同程度的富余,因此省间电能交易以甘肃、宁夏、新疆送青海为主。这种现状使得电量富余省具有较强的电力外送意愿而接受电力意愿较弱,部分省份甚至限制外购电量的交易规模。
 
  省间交易频繁,但交易电量不大是西北地区省间电能交易的主要特点——交易电量仅占总用电量不足5%。报告指出,目前西北地区省间通道传输能力整体富余,负载率水平不高。进一步开发省间互济,打破省间壁垒,需要设立更加灵活的交易方式,提升市场化程度,利用西北地区内部资源互济促进新能源消纳。
 
  报告建议,将西北各省(区)存在消纳困难的新能源与相邻火电比例较高省(区)的火电机组逐步尝试开展跨省发电权交易,促进火电机组占比较高的省份更加积极地参与西北区域内的新能源协调消纳。同时,鉴于西北地区各省(区)新能源运行各有特点,建议西北地区各省(区)在即将发生新能源弃电时段,与相邻火电比例较高且有剩余调峰容量省份的火电机组开展省间富余新能源现货交易,在保证新能源和火电机组双方利益的基础上,促进新能源消纳。
 
  “电力市场环境下的交易机制是决定市场运行效率和交易规模的核心因素。有效的交易机制可以促进供需双方积极参与市场,实现资源优化配置。”国家能源局西北能源监管局有关负责人表示,下一步,该局将继续以问题监管为抓手,结合西北区域新能源消纳困境进行课题研究,以期形成后续成果运用。