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我国清洁能源消纳已达国际先进水平

时间:[2019-02-11 ] 信息来源:中国能源报
作者: 
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  《清洁能源消纳行动计划(2018-2020年)》进一步明确了弃电量、弃电率的概念和界定标准——原则上,对风电、光伏发电利用率超过95%的区域,其限发电量不再计入全国限电量统计。对水能利用率超过95%的区域和主要流域(河流、河段),其限发电量不再计入全国限电量统计。

  1月15日,国家能源局电力司相关负责人就《清洁能源消纳行动计划(2018-2020年)》(下称《行动计划》)答记者问时表示:“我国2018年清洁能源消纳的形势持续向好,已经达到国际先进水平(风电利用率90%,光伏发电利用率95%)。”

  新能源弃电率持续大幅下降

  据上述相关负责人介绍,2018年,全国风、光、水、核四种清洁能源总发电装机达到7.49亿千瓦,总发电量累计2.08万亿千瓦时,其中,风电利用率达92.8%,弃风率7.2%,同比下降4.9个百分点;光伏利用率达97%,弃光率3%,同比下降2.8个百分点;水能利用率95%以上;核电运行平稳,利用率保持较高水平。

  据记者了解,2018年新能源弃电率延续了近年来的下降趋势。国家能源局新能源和可再生能源司副司长梁志鹏在去年年初该局召开的新闻发布会上曾表示,2017年可再生能源利用水平不断提高:“全年弃水电量515亿千瓦时,在来水好于上年的情况下,水能利用率达到96%左右;弃风电量419亿千瓦时,弃风率12%,同比下降5.2个百分点;弃光电量73亿千瓦时,弃光率6%,同比下降4.3个百分点。”换言之,弃风、弃光率近两年已分别累计下降超过12个百分点和7个百分点。

  上述负责人指出,弃风弃光主要集中在新疆、甘肃和内蒙古等地区,多发生于冬季供暖期以及夜间负荷低谷时段。2018年,上述三省区弃风弃光电量超过300亿千瓦时,占全国总弃风弃光电量比例超过90%。

  “弃风弃光的原因主要是新能源装机占比高,热电机组和自备电厂装机规模大,系统调峰压力较大,同时部分特高压通道的输电能力不足,存在新能源外送受限问题。弃水主要集中在西南的四川、云南地区,多发生于汛期。弃水的原因主要是水电建设规模较大,需要大规模跨省区外送消纳,涉及地域范围广、市场主体多、协调难度大,目前存在一定的网源建设不协调问题,同时市场化交易机制不健全,市场配置资源的决定性作用还没有充分发挥。”该负责人称。

  能源利用率成为主要评价指标

  近年来,我国清洁能源产业不断发展壮大,产业规模和技术装备水平连续跃上新台阶,为缓解能源资源约束和生态环境压力作出突出贡献。但同时,清洁能源发展不平衡不充分的矛盾也日益凸显,特别是清洁能源消纳问题突出,已严重制约财富彩票平台app下载健康可持续发展。

  为进一步巩固已有成果,上述负责人表示,国家发改委、国家能源局日前编制了《行动计划》。《行动计划》制定了“2018年清洁能源消纳取得显著成效,2020年基本解决清洁能源消纳问题”的总体工作目标。其中,2018年,风电利用率高于88%(力争达到90%以上),光伏发电利用率高于95%,全国水能利用率95%以上,大部分核电实现安全保障性消纳;2019年,风电利用率高于90%(力争达到92%左右),光伏发电利用率高于95%,全国水能利用率95%以上,核电基本实现安全保障性消纳;2020年,风电利用率达到国际先进水平(力争达到95%左右),弃光率低于5%,全国水能利用率95%以上,核电实现安全保障性消纳。

  上述负责人指出,《行动计划》更加突出了清洁能源的“利用率”,将风电利用率、光伏利用率和水能利用率作为清洁能源开发利用水平的主要评价指标。

  “长期以来,我国清洁能源发展一直以‘弃电’的高低作为评价标准,但‘弃电量’‘弃电率’的说法只关注清洁能源电力的未利用部分,忽视了整个能源和电力系统为消纳清洁能源付出的努力和成本,易引起社会各界的误解。从整个能源系统经济性和全社会用电成本的角度,结合电力系统自身的特性,清洁能源消纳存在一个经济合理的利用率范围,片面追求100%消纳,将极大提高系统的备用成本,限制电力系统可承载的新能源规模,反而制约了新能源发展,因此并不是100%完全消纳最好。”该负责人解释称,实际上,近年来随着我国能源清洁产业不断发展壮大,在风电、光伏等装机和发电量比重快速提升的同时,清洁能源利用水平正逐步接近并部分超过国际公认的平均合理水平。因此,《行动计划》制定了更加突出清洁能源的“利用率”的评价指标。

  利用率超95%后不再计入全国限电量

  另外,值得注意的是,《行动计划》进一步明确了弃电量、弃电率的概念和界定标准——“原则上,对风电、光伏发电利用率超过95%的区域,其限发电量不再计入全国限电量统计。对水能利用率超过95%的区域和主要流域(河流、河段),其限发电量不再计入全国限电量统计。”

  对此,上述负责人表示,一方面,目前部分媒体比较关注清洁能源限电率和限电量的“双降”,但限电绝对量与清洁能源的装机规模和利用水平均相关,随着我国清洁能源发展规模持续扩大,绝对限电量的横向对比意义减弱,限电量增大也不一定意味着利用水平降低,因此不宜使用限发电量的绝对数值作为评价指标,必须要从利用率的角度来考虑。另一方面,《行动计划》参考国际先进水平(风电利用率90%,光伏发电利用率95%),提出2020年全国平均风电利用率、光伏利用率、水能利用率指标分别为95%左右、高于95%和高于95%,达到了国际先进水平。

  “同时,由于我国清洁能源发展规模逐步扩大,特别是集中连片清洁能源开发地区,即使清洁能源利用水平控制在合理范围内,限发电量的绝对量也较大,容易引发炒作和误解。”上述负责人称,因此《行动计划》制定了利用率95%后弃电量不再计入全国限电量的标准。(贾科华)