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电力体制改革获得积极成效 新能源参与市场竞争是必然趋势

时间:[2018-11-01 ] 信息来源:证券日报
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   众所周知,我国电力体制改革已经持续了数年,而改革的目标从来不是为了单纯的降低电价,但是,价的高低走向又是评价电改效果的关键指标之一,因而,电价,尤其是售端电价始终牵动着关心电价人士的神经。

    近日,国家发改委召开10月份定时定主题新闻发布会。政研室副主任、委新闻发言人孟玮在会上表示,今年以来,发改委会同有关部门和地方,推动电力体制改革取得积极成效。

    据孟玮介绍,在去年实现省级电网输配电价改革全覆盖的基础上,2018年陆续核定了华北、东北、华东、华中、西北五大区域电网输电价格,以及24条跨省跨区专项输电工程输电价格,累计核减电网企业准许收入约600亿元。

    电力改革不断推进

    2015年3月15日,中共中央、国务院下发《关于进一步深化电力体制改革的若干意见》,被誉为“啃硬骨头的改革”正式拉开帷幕,最大的亮点是提出稳步推进售电侧改革,有序向社会资本放开配售电业务。

    相对于售电放开而言,配电网因触及电网企业核心利益,放开的脚步要缓慢一些。直至2016年10月11日,《有序放开配电网业务管理办法》出台,12月1日首批105个增量配电网业务改革试点落地。之后2017年11月和2018年4月第二批和第三批试点相继落地,目前项目总量已达320个。

    为扎实推进增量配电业务改革试点工作,了解试点中存在的问题,检查督导增量配电业务改革健康有序合规加快开展,8月份以来国家发改委、国家能源局组成六个组分别赴江苏、贵州、辽宁、河南、广东、甘肃、宁夏、重庆、云南、福建、浙江、上海、湖北、湖南等14个省(市、区),开展增量配电业务改革试点督导调研,了解项目进展、建设、运营以及供电业务许可证申办等情况,以及业主确定、配电区域划分、配电设施接入系统以及配电价格制定等方面存在的主要问题。

    有专家指出,在实际的操作中,政府规划与电网规划衔接、增量配电与存量的区域划分、供区存量资产处置还存在问题和争议。同时,在当前的增量配电价格下,基本没有盈利空间。输配电价按电压等级划分不是太合理,还有一些项目根本没有压差。而且目前很多试点都是产业园区、工业园区或经济开发区等,用电需求一般都是先低后高,甚至后期也不一定高,从而导致较长时期内售电量较低,收入远低于预期。此外,一些小型配电企业相关标准有待提高,独立第三方机构的数量和专业能力也不足。

    不过,在经过多年推进积极改革后,目前,全国所有省份均建立了电力交易机构,其中,云南、山西等8省(区)组建了股份制交易机构;北京、广州2个区域性电力交易中心也组建完成,成立了全国电力交易机构联盟,形成业务范围从省(区)到区域、从区域到全国的完整组织体系。截至2018年上半年,在全国各电力交易机构注册的合格市场主体达82921家,较2017年底增长约2万家。

    售电侧市场竞争机制初步建立。截至2018年8月,全国在电力交易机构注册的售电公司达3600家左右,为电力用户提供多样化的选择和服务,有效激发了市场活力。同时,发改委开展了三批增量配电业务改革试点,共有试点项目320个,不少试点项目已投入运营,在引入社会资本方面取得了突破性进展。

    在加快放开发用电计划方面,2018年上半年,全国市场化交易电量8024亿千瓦时,同比增长24.6%。其中,发电企业与电力用户直接交易电量6656亿千瓦时,为工商企业减少电费支出约259亿元;跨区跨省市场化交易电量1483亿千瓦时,同比增长32.6%。2018年7月,发改委、国家能源局联合印发《关于积极推进电力市场化交易进一步完善交易机制的通知》,明确要求扩大市场主体参与,完善电力市场交易机制,提出2018年放开煤炭、钢铁、有色、建材等4个行业电力用户发用电计划。

    新能源未来将参与市场竞争

    从新能源行业来看,根据中国的电力改革政策,政府将会开放售电市场,但输电则仍在两家主要电网公司手上(南方电网和国家电网)。由于火电和水电比其他可再生能源更具成本优势,因此政府推出了可再生能源配额制,以保障可再生能源的发展(2020年前,发电公司的总发电量至少9%要来自非水力可再生能源;2020年前,火电公司的可再生能源发电量需至少相当于总火电发电量的15%)。根据可再生能源配额制,未达标的火电公司需要向可再生能源公司购买“绿色证书”,这将惠及可再生能源。此外,由于风电利用小时数高于光电,在更低的市场价格下仍可盈利,更具成本优势,因此风电比光电更能受惠于可再生能源配额制。

    国家能源局近日发布了2017年全国31省(区)的上网电价。其中风电平均上网电价为562.30元/千千瓦时,燃煤发电的平均上网电价为371.65元/千千瓦时。2020年风电要实现平价上网,目前来看风电仍有190.65元/千千瓦时的距离。

    近年来,尽管风电、光伏等新能源发展迅速,但由于资源富集地与电力消费地不匹配、技术因素以及体制障碍导致的新能源消纳难、并网难仍是困扰行业发展的难题。目前,一方面是政府大力扶持新能源建设,另一方面却是大量的弃风弃光现象,光伏与风能发电有较多无处可用的尴尬境地。我国新能源面临着“弃风、弃光限电”问题,导致新能源开发不得不转向低风速、低光照地区,这些地区尽管没有消纳问题,但可开发的资源非常有限,且面临复杂的开发环境。

    不过,可以看到,全面参与市场也是新能源发电最终必然的选择,对于新能源行业而言,享受补贴的受限发展与全面参与电力市场,究竟哪一个是现阶段新能源行业的最优选择,需要先看看成熟电力市场国家新能源进入电力市场的模式。但毋庸置疑,我国现阶段新能源发展的速度和规模是任何一个成熟电力市场国家无法比拟的。国外通过溢价补贴、实施配额制、签订实物或金融协议等多种方式保障新能源收益,使得新能源能够以低电价参与市场竞价实现优先上网,用市场的方式实现新能源健康可持续发展。